Resource Index

Linking vs. citing resources

When writing academic papers in college for my two Classics degrees (e.g., here, here, here, and here), I very quickly decided that I disliked everything about citations, both as a writer needing to cite things and as a reader needing to follow citations in the academic research I was using. Tens of hours of frustration later, and I resolved that I would do absolutely everything in my power to avoid citations as much as possible in my writing moving forward.

However, so-called intertextuality is very important in research and writing: with few exceptions, most serious writing needs to support its arguments and points with external evidence. If citing things doesn’t cut it due to its gross inefficiency, then what is the answer?

Hyperlinks. Hyperlinks are the answer. Perhaps the standout feature of the internet, hyperlinks let writers easily copy-paste URLs as reference locations, and perhaps more importantly, let readers instantly jump to referenced material. Hyperlinks (henceforth links) remove all the inefficiency that make citations decidedly un-fun to work with.

It is easy to link the resources of web-based ministries like Ichthys (a text-centric ministry), Bible Academy (a YouTube ministry), and others. But what of more standard reference books – can we find some way to link those rather than having to work with the dreaded citations?

It turns out that one of the Bible software options called Logos supports full hyperlinks to resources you own in the software. While there are other reasons too as to why I chose Logos as the Bible software program that I bought all my reference resources in (such as the fact that Logos has a fully-developed web application – meaning you can access your study library from any computer in the world), this linking functionality is an important part of it: Logos lets me create hyperlinks to digital resources on the fly, such that anyone else who owns the same resource in Logos can follow my links instantly.

By purchasing only digital resources in Logos (rather than print books) and making use of the linking functionality that Logos allows, it is possible to also completely eliminate inefficient citations of reference works, from lexicons to systematic theologies. Linking only web resources is certainly better than citing web resources with no linking at all (something that I’ve never, ever understood – if you can directly link to a web resource, then isn’t citing such a resource a huge step backwards in convenience?), but linking everything is miles better.

I have used full resource linking (rather than citations) in my own private notes on scripture for quite a while now, and the practice has very few downsides in practice. Really, the only problematic thing is that links to reference works require all parties to own the resources (i.e., they don’t work for people who don’t own the resources). Unlike paper books that can be borrowed from a library, there is no way to “check out” resources in Bible software programs, so the upfront purchase costs can be a barrier, especially for our brothers and sisters in the developing world. On the other hand, digital resources are quite a bit less expensive than paper resources most of the time, [and have plenty of other advantages besides](), so the situation isn’t all so bad.

What about resources not offered in Logos?

There are a few resources that Logos doesn’t offer that I own in a different Bible software program called OliveTree. While OliveTree doesn’t really support resource hyperlinking, it does have an API for jumping to specific verses by hyperlink, which is at least better than nothing. It so happens that all of the resources I use and recommend for OliveTree are scrolled in-line with scripture, such that it is possible to reference them in this somewhat-roundabout way. What I mean by this will become clearer below.

For easy identification, all links to resources external to Bible software are prefixed with a tilde (~).

As discussed above, I link to things in Bible study software (Logos and OliveTree) directly. As to things external to Bible software, things that I can actually link (e.g., a PDF of something on archive.org, resources from an online Bible teaching ministry) I do. Otherwise, the link is where to purchase the resource (or at least one option for such – I generally prioritize Amazon links).

I create the link text for different resource links a bit differently, so give pertinent examples of all the types here. All resources (both those linked in Bible software and those linked external to it) obey these rules. So, for example, reference works external to Bible software programs are linked in essentially the same way as those that are in them – that is, sometimes by section, and sometimes by page number.

Note that I use resource abbreviations (or at least partial abbreviations) quite frequently. If you ever come across a resource abbreviation that you are unfamiliar with, you can search for it in the resource index below to find the resource it is associated with.

Biblical texts

The links are constructed as {Text} > {Verse}.

I create link text for biblical texts all the same way, be they English Bible versions or Greek or Hebrew texts.

Examples:

Lexicons

The links are constructed as {Lexicon} > {Lemma}.

Examples:

Study notes, Bible handbooks

The links are constructed as {In-line Resource} > {Verse}.

While I can directly link to the FreeBibleCommentary.org study notes I use, offered by Dr. Bob Utley, the other in-line resources I use (the NIV Study Bible, a couple Bible handbooks) are OliveTree resources, meaning direct links are not possible; the best I can do is link to a specific verse, which will navigate you to that verse in your Bible in OliveTree. You can then open the in-line resource, which will automatically sync to the verse’s location. This is a bit indirect, but it actually adds very little time in practice.

Examples:

Topical resources

The links are constructed as {In-line Topical Resource} > {Verse} > {Topic}.

These are OliveTree resources too. Generally, what it is desirable to link to is the verse listing for a specific topic. Unfortunately, since OliveTree does not support full hyperlinks, this is not possible to do directly.

However, we can do this indirectly, similar to how we got to the in-line resources indirectly above. We just have one more step here: once you arrive at a specific verse in an in-line topical resource, you’ll need to click on the appropriate topic to jump to the full verse listing for that topic. This adds a couple seconds, but it is still really not all that inconvenient. In the future, if OliveTree ever gets support for full resource hyperlinks, even this slight inconvenience could be eliminated.

Examples:

Commentaries

The links are constructed as {Commentary} > {Verse}.

The commentaries I favor most are Unger’s Commentary on the Old Testament and the verse-by-verse study videos put out by Bible Academy, but I do also occasionally link to some technical language commentaries as well.

Examples:

Bible dictionaries and encyclopedias

The links are constructed as {Dictionary/Encyclopedia} > {Topic}.

Examples:

Digital reference works

The links are constructed as {Reference Work} > {Section} (if a specific section is in view) or {Reference Work} > {Location} (if the link is to a specific page/paragraph).

These sorts of links encompass more general reference works that aren’t organized by verse or topic – books, in other words. Works on systematic theology, church history, and so forth are thus linked in this way.

Examples:

Resource index

Note that some of these resources (the older ones out of copyright) may be found for free on the internet. Purchasing everything in Logos allows for verse tagging, resource syncing, and other things of this sort, which cumulatively save a lot of time in the long run.

Important Note: the vast majority of Christians do not need a reference library nearly as large as this. Teachers who dig into Greek and Hebrew (not all are called to study in the original languages) will find most everything in this table to be useful to them. Most people in the body of Christ, particularly non-teachers, need far less.

CategorizationAbbreviationTitleTypePurchase Link
English BiblesNASBNew American Standard Bible, 1995digitalLogos
English BiblesESVEnglish Standard VersiondigitalLogos
English BiblesNIV84New International Version, 1984digitalN/A
English BiblesNIV84ANew International Version—Anglicised, 1984digitalLogos
English BiblesNIV11New International Version, 2011digitalLogos
English BiblesHCSBHolman Christian Standard BibledigitalLogos
English BiblesNKJVNew King James VersiondigitalLogos
English BiblesNLTNew Living TranslationdigitalLogos
Study notesNIV Study BibleNIV Study Bible, Fully Revised EditiondigitalOliveTree
Study notesUtley NTDr. Bob Utley's NT written commentarieswebFreeBibleCommentary (Free)
Study notesUtley OTDr. Bob Utley's OT written commentarieswebFreeBibleCommentary (Free)
Bible handbooksUnger's Bible HandbookThe New Unger's Bible HandbookdigitalOliveTree
Bible handbooksHalley's Bible HandbookHalley's Bible HandbookdigitalOliveTree
CommentariesBible AcademyBible Academy's verse-by-verse YouTube videosvideoYouTube (Free)
CommentariesUnger's OT CommentaryUnger's Commentary on the Old Testamentprint bookAmazon
CommentariesUnger's Gospels CommentaryUnger's Commentary on the Gospelsprint bookAmazon
CommentariesHodge on RomansCommentary on the Epistle to the RomansdigitalLogos
CommentariesHodge on EphesiansA Commentary on the Epistle to the EphesiansdigitalLogos
CommentariesHodge on 1 CorinthiansAn Exposition of the First Epistle to the CorinthiansdigitalLogos
CommentariesHodge on 2 CorinthiansAn Exposition of the Second Epistle to the CorinthiansdigitalLogos
Topical resourcesThompson Chain ReferenceThompson Chain Reference Study BibledigitalOliveTree
Topical resourcesDictionary of Bible ThemesDictionary of Bible ThemesdigitalOliveTree
Topical resourcesOlive Tree Topic ThreadsOlive Tree Bible Topic ThreadsdigitalOliveTree
Bible dictionaries and encyclopedias, single-volumeSmith's Bible DictionarySmith's Bible DictionarydigitalLogos
Bible dictionaries and encyclopedias, single-volumeEaston's Bible DictionaryEaston's Bible DictionarydigitalLogos
Bible dictionaries and encyclopedias, single-volumeHastings' Single-volume Bible DictionaryDictionary of the BibledigitalLogos
Bible dictionaries and encyclopedias, single-volumeUnger's Bible DictionaryThe New Unger's Bible DictionarydigitalLogos
Bible dictionaries and encyclopedias, single-volumeHolman Illustrated Bible DictionaryHolman Illustrated Bible DictionarydigitalLogos
Bible dictionaries and encyclopedias, single-volumeEerdman's Dictionary of the BibleEerdmans Dictionary of the BibledigitalLogos
Bible dictionaries and encyclopedias, single-volumeNew Bible DictionaryThe New Bible Dictionary, 3rd ed.digitalLogos
Bible dictionaries and encyclopedias, multi-volumeHastings' Multi-volume Bible DictionaryA Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols.)digitalLogos
Bible dictionaries and encyclopedias, multi-volumeISBE1915The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 1915 Edition (5 vols.)digitalLogos
Bible dictionaries and encyclopedias, multi-volumeISBE1995The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 1995 Edition (4 vols.)digitalLogos
Bible dictionaries and encyclopedias, multi-volumeAYBDAnchor Yale Bible Dictionary (6 vols.)digitalLogos
Bible surveysDriver on OTAn Introduction to the Literature of the Old TestamentdigitalLogos
Theology: basicsPeter SeriesPeter SerieswebIchthys (Free)
Theology: basicsFoundational PrinciplesOdii's Foundational Principles SerieswebIchthys (Free)
Theology: systematicsBBBible Basics SerieswebIchthys (Free)
Theology: chronology, anthropologySRSatanic Rebellion SerieswebIchthys (Free)
Theology: eschatologyCTComing Tribulation SerieswebIchthys (Free)
Theology: eschatologyBible Crash CourseBible Crash Course YouTube channelvideoYouTube (Free)
Theology: hamartiologySpiritual BattleBartek's Study on Spiritual BattlewebIchthys (Free)
Theology: soteriologyChafer on SalvationSalvationdigitalLogos
Theology: systematicsChafer's Systematic TheologySystematic Theology (8 vols.)digitalLogos
Theology: systematicsThiessen's Systematic TheologyLectures in Systematic TheologydigitalLogos
Theology: systematicsHodge's Systematic theologySystematic Theology (3 vols.)digitalLogos
Theology: systematicsStrong's Systematic TheologySystematic Theology (3 vols.)digitalLogos
Church historyWalker's Church HistoryA History of the Christian ChurchdigitalLogos
Church historySchaff's Church HistoryHistory of the Christian Church (8 vols.)digitalLogos
Other referenceThe Life and Epistles of St. PaulThe Life and Epistles of St. Paul (2 vols.)digitalLogos
Other referenceA Harmony of the Life of St. PaulA Harmony of the Life of St. PauldigitalLogos
Other referencePhilology of the GospelsPhilology of the GospelsdigitalLogos
Greek textsNA28Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament, 28th Edition, with Critical ApparatusdigitalLogos
Greek textsUBS5The Greek New Testament, 5th ed., with Critical ApparatusdigitalLogos
Technical Greek commentariesAGAGNTA Grammatical Analysis of the Greek New TestamentdigitalLogos
Technical Greek commentariesMeyer's CommentaryCritical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament (21 vols.)digitalLogos
Greek lexiconsThayer'sThayer's Greek–English Lexicon of the New TestamentdigitalLogos
Greek lexiconsMiddle LiddellAn Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, Liddell & ScottdigitalLogos
Greek lexiconsAbbot-Smith'sAbbott-Smith's Manual Greek Lexicon of the New TestamentdigitalLogos
Greek lexiconsBDAGA Greek–English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 3rd ed.digitalLogos
Greek lexiconsLSJLiddell and Scott Greek–English LexicondigitalLogos
Greek grammarsAncient Greek for EveryoneAncient Greek for Everyone: Essential Morphology and Syntax for Beginning GreekwebPressbooks (Free)
Greek grammarsSmythA Greek Grammar for CollegesdigitalLogos
Greek grammarsBDFA Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian LiteraturedigitalLogos
Greek grammarsZerwickBiblical Greek, Illustrated by ExamplesdigitalLogos
Greek textual criticismNA28 ApparatusNestle-Aland Greek New Testament, 28th Edition, with Critical ApparatusdigitalLogos
Greek textual criticismUBS5 ApparatusThe Greek New Testament, 5th ed., with Critical ApparatusdigitalLogos
Greek textual criticismCNTTS ApparatusCenter for New Testament Textual Studies' New Testament Critical ApparatusdigitalLogos
Greek textual criticismMetzger's Textual CommentaryA Textual Commentary on the Greek New TestamentdigitalLogos
Greek textual criticismGNT PapyriThe Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek ManuscriptsdigitalAccordance
Greek textual criticismCodex SinaiticusCodex SinaiticusdigitalAccordance
Greek textual criticismCodex VaticanusCodex VaticanusdigitalAccordance
Greek textual criticismCodex AlexandrinusCodex AlexandrinusdigitalAccordance
Greek textual criticismCodex BezaeCodex BezaedigitalAccordance
Greek textual criticismCodex WashingtonianusCodex WashingtonianusdigitalAccordance
Hebrew textsWestminster Hebrew OTBiblia Hebraica Westmonasteriensis with Westminster Hebrew MorphologydigitalLogos
Hebrew textsBHSBiblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, with Critical ApparatusdigitalLogos
Hebrew textsBHQBiblia Hebraica Quinta, with Critical ApparatusdigitalLogos
Technical Hebrew CommentariesKeil and DelitzschKeil and Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament (10 vols.)digitalLogos
Technical Hebrew CommentariesDriver on SamuelNotes on the Hebrew Text of the Books of SamueldigitalLogos
Hebrew lexiconsGeseniusGesenius' Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon to the Old TestamentdigitalLogos
Hebrew lexiconsBDBEnhanced Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English LexicondigitalLogos
Hebrew lexiconsTWOTTheological Wordbook of the Old TestamentdigitalLogos
Hebrew lexiconsHALOTHebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (5 vols.)digitalLogos
Hebrew lexiconsJastrowDictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic LiteraturedigitalLogos
Hebrew lexiconsDCHDictionary of Classical Hebrew (9 vols.)digitalLogos
Hebrew grammarsLambdinIntroduction to Biblical Hebrewprint bookAmazon
Hebrew grammarsKey to LambdinAnnotated Key to Lambdin's Introduction to Biblical Hebrewprint bookAmazon
Hebrew grammarsGeseniusGesenius' Hebrew Grammar, 2nd English EditiondigitalLogos
Hebrew grammarsDriverA Treatise on the Use of the Tenses in Hebrew and Some Other Syntactical QuestionsdigitalLogos
Hebrew textual criticismBHS apparatusBiblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia, with Critical ApparatusdigitalLogos
Hebrew textual criticismBHQ apparatusBiblia Hebraica Quinta, with Critical ApparatusdigitalLogos
Hebrew textual criticismQumran Biblical DSSQumran Biblical Dead Sea Scrolls DatabasedigitalLogos
Hebrew textual criticismSamaritan PentateuchThe Hebrew Pentateuch of the SamaritansdigitalLogos
Septuagint, Hebrew textual criticismRahlf-Hanhart LXXSeptuaginta, with Critical Apparatus and Alternate TextsdigitalLogos
Septuagint, Hebrew textual criticismLEH LXX LexiconA Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint, Revised EditiondigitalLogos
Septuagint, septuagint textual criticism, Hebrew textual criticismRahlf-Hanhart LXX ApparatusSeptuaginta, with Critical Apparatus and Alternate TextsdigitalLogos
CategorizationAbbreviationTitleTypePurchase Link